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Forget the Map at Home!

A Guide to Improvisation, by Katie Lubiens

You don't need sheet music on this journey.
You don’t need sheet music on this journey.

Improvising? That sounds scary! Making up the music as you go? But where’s the sheet music? Who even improvises anyway?

As a classical violinist, these were all questions I asked myself when confronted with the thought of improvising.  I never was taught to improvise.  As classical musicians, we always have our sheet music to guide us, to show us the direction we should go.  Going forward into the musical realm without sheet music seems like going on a roadtrip without a map.  Where do I go?

Surprisingly, I’ve discovered, improving is all around us as musicians.  Even classical musicians improvise, too!  There are so many musical genres to experiment with which do teach you to improvise and foster those creative juices that make new music happen.  From blues jams to Irish sessiuns, from jazz club improvs to bluegrass jam outs, there are endless outlets for practicing improvisation.  Without sheet music, how do we know what to play?   Especially when improvising with other musicians.

Katie Lubiens performing with The Seseseisiunists.
Katie Lubiens performing with The Seseseisiunists.

Here are a few pointers when learning to improvise: 

  1. The most important thing to know is what key you are playing in.  It can sound great when everyone is playing something completely different, but they must be playing their own unique parts in the same key for it to work.
  2. Think of the scale, then play itterations of the scale.  I like to play the scale aloud before trying any kind of improvising so I really get the notes in my ear and fingers.  Then try playing the scale up and down, jumping around with different arpeggios, and always keeping the tonic, dominant and 7th in mind.
  3. Take turns.  Most improv music works best when everyone takes turns being the melody.  When it’s not your turn at the melody be sure to keep the energy up.  Long notes mixed with off beat rhythms are easy on the tonic or dominant.
  4. Practice some cool licks at home.  Most improv artists aren’t actually making it up as they go.  Usually, they have practiced some licks which they made up at home and can transcribe them into any key to play while performing in an improvising scenario.
  5. Perfection is not the point.  Improvising teaches you to be adaptable.  Adapting to your current musical situation makes you a stronger player and shows you that the imperfections are what make improvising so thrilling.
  6. Don’t be afraid!  Although you can feel put on the spot while improvising, recognize that everyone else recognizes that you are improvising.  It is not meant to be perfect.  Once you get used to improvising, you will begin to feel the powerful energy in making up music with your peers as you go.

Like anything, improvising gets better the more you do it.  I promise you, if you try you, will find that creating your own music with others in the moment is one of the best adventures you can embark upon. The moment when you close your eyes and listen to yourself creating music together, making it up as you go, and you hear that it sounds beautiful and harmonious, you will find pride in yourself like never before.  So, go ahead, make up the directions to your next adventure and forget the map at home!

**Check back soon for more in depth imrpovising tools and tips!

A GUIDE TO TEACHING CHILDREN MUSIC – Principle 2: “Self-Initiated Learning vs. Imposition”

“Children learn best when the learning is self-initiated, arising from their own curiosity and interests, rather than imposed on them.”

– Aletha Solter, Ph.D., “Principles of Learning”

Godfrey Kneller's portrait of IsaacNewton, 1689
Godfrey Kneller’s portrait of IsaacNewton, 1689

Newton hit the nail on the head with his third law of motion: “For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.” Try verbally or physically trying to make a child do something will make them resist even more.

Examples:

  • Try forcing green vegetables into a kid’s mouth and they will refuse to open their mouth or immediately spit out whatever you put in there.
  • Yell at a child to get in bed and they’re be riled up and less tired or willing to sleep.
  • Try physically removing a child from doing or playing with something they like and they will kick and scream.

When we apply this to music and helping children develop the habit of practicing, negatively forcing a child to play a specific instrument or practice at specific times for specific lengths of time may produce results—BUT, on the other hand,  they might sap away a child’s desire to play over time. This happens especially if those measures result in reluctance, resistance, indifference, apathy, or rejection of musical activities or practice.

There are two types of motivation:

  1. Intrinsic motivation, or an inner desire or interest to do something, usually for the sake of enjoyment or self-satisfaction.
  2. Extrinsic motivation, or a drive to accomplish something in order to receive a reward or recognition from an outward motivator. Motivators include threats, bribes, prizes, fame, competition, pressuring, etc.

In teacher Lara Hansen’s article “The Inherent Desire to Learn: Intriniscally Motivating First Grade Students,” she says,

“When people are intrinsically motivated they feel interest and enjoyment in what they are doing. They also feel a sense of capability and determination. What they don’t feel is tension, stress, and anxiety.”

In general, people tend to enjoy activities more when they can enjoy the experience and develop a personal passion for what they are doing. Any trauma introduced to an activity in the form of external motivators can lead that activity becoming stressful instead of a pleasure to perform.

As teachers and parents, we can provide opportunities for a child learn an instrument, but imposing, pushing, or bribing a child will create resistance and perhaps kill the child’s original curiosity and interest.

But don’t worry! We all have negative experiences with music, like playing a bad concert or being pressured to practice because of an assignment or impending performance. External/extrinsic motivators naturally exist and aren’t all bad unless they kill our passion for music.

And even if desires and passions dwindle, they can be fed and nurtured back to life. Just because a child throws a fit and doesn’t want to go to a music lesson one day doesn’t mean all is lost—you may find the same child excitedly getting their instrument out to show a friend the next day.

They say curiosity killed the cat, but perhaps killing the curiosity in the cat is the sadder scenario. Let’s keep the desire to learn alive and well!

A GUIDE TO TEACHING CHILDREN MUSIC – Principle 1: “The Ability and Desire to Learn”

“All children are born with the desire and the ability to learn.”

– Aletha Solter, Ph.D., “Principles of Learning”

THE ABILITY TO LEARN

Young students come to lessons at Kennedy Violins with minds like blank slates.  From the start, children are born with brains like sponges—you’ve heard the comparison before. Sounds, sights, movements, and smells engage the brain as it makes neurological connections. Every experience is absorbed, defining a growing child’s understanding of the world around him. 

Music is a language, so the ability to learn, read, and make music can be compared to language acquisition. From birth, and even in the womb, infants are extremely cognisant of sounds. A baby recognizes the specific tone of her mother’s voice. Pitch recognitions allow a child to recognize high and low tones.

The sound of music, which does not have to be deciphered, decoded, or read, can absolutely captivate a child of any age. Children stop in their tracks to identify the sounds around them like a bird chirping, a plane flying overhead, or the playing of a piano upstairs. Musical sounds are expressed in a universal language of melodies, to which language humans are programmed to respond from the very beginning.

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A DESIRE TO LEARN

Because music is inherently fascinating to children and adults, it can be introduced and immediately engage a child’s interest, filling him or her with an intrinsic desire to hear, learn, and experience more. A parent or teacher can take this golden opportunity to feed a child’s natural interest in music by recognizing his or her specific desires and creating a learning environment to satisfy the child’s hunger for more — more music, of course! 

A child’s natural curiosity leads to questions like

  • What happened?
  • What is this?
  • What was that sound?
  • Who is that?
  • Why? Why? Why?
  • Are we there yet?

Kids want to learn. As parents and teachers, we have the great opportunity and responsibility to provide an education to satisfy a child’s thirst for knowledge. Hand a child an instrument, and they will want to play with it and on it.

Therefore, music need not be forced upon a child to produce interest—in fact, forcing children typically repels their interest. Read more about imposed learning with Principle Two: “Self-Initiated Learning vs. Imposition.”

A GUIDE TO TEACHING CHILDREN MUSIC: An Interpretation of Aletha Solter’s “Principles of Learning”

Orchestra students at the Mitch Carter school play instruments from Kennedy Violins.
Fifth grade students at  M.I.T.C.H. Charter School play instruments from Kennedy Violins.

As parents, teachers, and musicians, we hope to guide both our children and students to learn in the most effective way. But how can we encourage

  • a desire to learn
  • discipline to practice
  • enjoyment
  • and a sense of accomplishment

when teaching children to play an instrument?

Quite often children

  • equate practice with punishment,
  • experience boredom during lessons and practice sessions,
  • don’t understand what is being taught,
  • resist being encouraged (or forced) to practice,
  • lose interest in their instrument,
  • and/or don’t believe music can be enjoyable.

How can we keep children from these pitfalls and stumbling blocks during what could otherwise be a fulfilling, effective, and FUN learning experience?

Understanding how children learn is absolutely imperative when you are a teacher or parent introducing a child to music. Parental involvement is very important in the process, which is why all private instructors at Kennedy Violins encourage parents to participate in and be aware of their child’s learning experience.

The following series is a guide expanding upon eleven points from “Principles of Learning,” an article excerpt from Helping Young Children Flourish by developmental psychologist Aletha Solter, Ph.D. This series will expand on the eleven principles of learning in terms of how children can learn to play a musical instrument.

___________________________________

Please check back as sections of “A Guide to Teaching Children Music” are added to this series!

  1. “The Ability and Desire to Learn”
  2. “Self-Initiated Learning vs. Imposition”
  3. “Hands-On Self-Discovery” – Coming Soon
  4. “Learning Through Play” – Coming Soon
  5. “Appropriate Stimulation” – Coming Soon
  6. “Inspiring Imagination and Creativity” – Coming Soon
  7. “Children Learn at Their Own Rate” – Coming Soon
  8. “Children Have Different Learning Styles” – Coming Soon
  9. “Screen Time: Stifling Creativity” – Coming Soon
  10. “Stress Interferes with Learning” – Coming Soon
  11. “The Parent/Child Relationship Affects Learning” – Coming Soon

Suzuki vs. Traditional Method

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“Music is the language of the heart without words.” -Dr Suzuki

There is so much confusion surrounding what the difference is between traditional and Suzuki method violin lessons. What’s the difference? Is one better? How do you choose?

I, personally, started on the Suzuki method at the age of three, went through two years of Suzuki pedagogy training,  and currently have a studio of thirty students that I teach the Suzuki method to. I believe in the Suzuki method and really enjoy using it with my students.

Dr. Suzuki was born in Japan and was a firm believer that every child can learn to play music. He was a strong advocate for creating an “environment” where music was fostered and encouraged in every child. The basis of his method was on linguistics and how a child learns spoken language. Just as we do not expect a child to read before they can talk, we should not expect a child to read music before they can play music.

With that idea, a Suzuki teacher will teach at least the first year of violin without having the child read music. The focus is on posture, tone and developing a love of music. This means the child will attend concerts, play with other violinists, perform as often as possible and be immersed in the violin world.  It is for these reasons that the Suzuki method is often the preferred method for teaching younger children ages 2-5. Children at these ages are not trying to keep up with any kind of school orchestra, are often not reading yet and their ear is still developing making them prime candidates for learning music by ear.

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Dr. Suzuki leading a group of children playing violins

Traditional violin lesson teachers will often be leery to start a child before 1st grade and often would prefer to wait until 4th or 5th grade. This is sad because many years have been lost in which the child could have been exposed to music and learning to appreciate it. The other major benefit to starting young is learning to perform at a young age which makes it less intimidating as you get older.

The positive side of waiting and doing traditional method is that the child can be self-propelled and often needs very little help from the parent other then encouragement. The Suzuki method is very parent involved. Especially when you start from a young age. Dr. Suzuki always encouraged the parent to learn along side the child. He felt like this was a positive role modal for the child and then the parent could assist in practice. Ask any teacher; too often a parent ruins a week of practice by giving a student wrong advice.

You can start the Suzuki method at a later age. I have started many students age ten to twelve on the Suzuki method. They do really well. The benefit of only focusing on posture, tone and love of music really brings out the artistry in playing the instrument. Making it way less about the technical side of reading music and more about the artistic side of making music.

To be honest, I do start my students with reading music by Book 2 of the Suzuki method. My reason for this is that my own musical growth was stunted by leaving out the reading of music for so long. By the time most of my students reach Book 2 though, they have been playing for three years. This is plenty of time to focus on posture and tone development without the stress of trying to read music at the same time. I do not however, use the Suzuki book to read music. I supplement with fiddle tunes, duets, scales, etudes and rhythm training.  If a teacher claims to be a Suzuki teacher and just teaches from the books they are missing the whole point of Dr. Suzuki’s method. His method was not about the songs he wrote or pieces in the books. His method is about believing in the ability of every child to play music, to foster the love of music in every child and to start them off in music the best way possible.

 To get a visual idea of what Dr. Suzuki was like and what his method brought about, watch this YouTube channel by clicking here. Crazy what love, devotion and belief in a child’s ability can bring about.

How Young is Too Young?

As a violin teacher, with a pretty good size studio, I think the question I get the most is, “At what age should I start my child?”  There are several responses that I could have with this question, but I will go with the two that I feel most strongly about.

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First, what is best for your child?  In this day and age it is not uncommon for a child to have an extra activity every day.  From soccer to acting class kids’ schedules can be crazy.  If you want them to play an instrument, not have to practice with them, and just have fun, then starting in 5th or 6th grade is probably the best option.  At that age, kids can be pretty self-driven and if they like the instrument will practice.  You may need to be flexible, however,  because your child will probably want to switch as they get exposed to different instruments.  For a child to try violin one year and cello the next is great, but as a parent can be frustrating.

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Second, what is best for you as the parent?  If you want to start your child on violin at the age of three, that’s awesome, but realize you will have to be very dedicated.  Practicing with the child every day, enduring tantrums when practice gets difficult, and having a slow and steady approach to learning the instrument.  I love it when a young child gets a grasp on music early.  The students I have that started at the age of three or four have a way better understanding of music then a child that starts in 5th or 6th grade.  They have been around music longer, appreciate it, and see music almost as a second language.  It is a beautiful thing, however, it is not an easy thing to accomplish as a parent.  If you are not the type of parent that wants to dedicate yourself to learning the violin and practicing with your child every day then hold off on starting them young.  It will cause you more grief than joy.  So, unless you are a bit of a “tiger mom” it may not be best for you.

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I started the violin at the age of three.  There has never been a day, in my adulthood, that I have regretted starting the violin at such a young age.  It is why I love teaching younger students so much.  By the way, all of the children’s pictures in this post are students of mine.

Starting children young can be very rewarding.  My mom was an amazing, dedicated woman and she said there was nothing more rewarding then seeing her children come alive while playing music.  My mother also came up with the best quitting rule when it came to music.  If we ever came to our mom and said that we wanted to quit she always said that was just fine and we would mark the calendar for 6 months from the time that we asked to quit.  If 6 months later we still wanted to quit the instrument, we were allowed to do so.  You would be amazed at how often quitting an instrument is associated with an upcoming performance, current frustration with a technique, or just pure laziness. Often, after 6 months, we would not even remember wanting to quit.  I still use this rule with my own students.  It works brilliantly.  In ten years of teaching I have only had one student quit.

In closing, a child is never to young to begin to experience music. Singing to and with your child, playing music for your child, and being intentional about learning different instruments and their sounds can go a long way towards teaching your child to appreciate music. Music is not so much a talent but a gift and like all art, should be deeply appreciated.

I would start by watching the “Goat Rodeo” sessions on YouTube with your child. Totally entertaining and lively. They will love them.  You can click here to see what I’m talking about. 🙂

Making Music at M.I.T.C.H. Charter School

Every once in awhile, there is a collective sigh at Kennedy Violins when we hear of yet another school orchestra program being cut.  A few months ago, however, we were thrilled to get a call from Cami Galloway of the band, Virginia Real.  She was in need of violins to use for a workshop at a school that wanted to START a string program for their students.  We were thrilled to know that there were still schools out there that recognize the value of music. So, when Cami asked if we could provide the violins for the workshop, we didn’t have to think twice-of course we would!

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The members of Virginia Real

Over the next several weeks, we worked with Dee Grothe, the coordinating teacher for the workshop at M.I.T.C.H. Charter School.  There would be 78 students participating in the 3-Day workshop!  Wow!  She described how the hope was that the workshop with Cami would ignite an interest in the students and that an official strings class would begin in the fall.

Our team of luthiers worked for weeks to professionally set-up all the instruments that would be needed.  Then, a few days before the workshop started, our customer service team went to M.I.T.C.H. Charter School and sized each student so that they could have the proper violin and they got to take home their violins that day!  So, by the time the Cami and the Virginia Real band showed up, they students were eager and ready to go!

By all accounts, the workshop was a huge success!  By the end of the three day workshop, the students performed “Twinkle, Twinkle,” “Boil Them Cabbage Down,” and “Shortenin’ Bread.”  Many students expressed an interest wanting to continue and are going to get private lessons this summer!  According to Cami Galloway, “M.I.T.C.H. is truly showing innovation and the teachers, Dee Grothe, Dianne Wright and Kelly Shelton have corroborated together to help bring the band across the country to provide this opportunity for their students.”  We think that when school starts again in the Fall, M.I.T.C.H. Charter School will have no problem getting a string program up and running.

Students participating in the string workshop
Students participating in the string workshop

Cami Galloway and Virginia Real have done workshops like this across the country.  If you are interested in having them lead a workshop at your school or organization, you can contact them at varealband@gmail.com.

Music Theory Basics Part 4: Scale Degrees

This is the last installment of Music Theory Basics.  Why?  Well, beyond this you are getting into more intermediate and advanced concepts of music theory.  Even this entry is pushing the limits on what is “basic,” which is why I strongly recommend taking sometime to review the previous three entries before reading this one.

In Part 3 of Music Theory Basics, we discuss how our modern day musical scales developed from the musical modes used by the ancient Greeks.  For today’s purposes, here is a “textbook” definition.

  • Scale: a series of notes arranged, ascending or descending, by pitch.

Most scales are arranged in 8 notes (octave) and there are 7 different pitches within the modern musical scale of the Western world.  Each pitch serves a specific function and a name describing that function. Take a look and the scale degrees of a C major scale.Scale Degrees

  • Tonic: As the first scale degree, the tonic is the strongest tone within the scale and is the pitch that the melody and harmony center around.  Musical phrases usually end on the tonic.
  • Supertonic: The second scale degree which is on step above the tonic. This note is usually used as a passing tone to resolve to the tonic.
  • Mediant:  The third scale degree.  The mediant is halfway between the tonic and the dominant and is often used to harmonize either tone.
  • Subdominant: The fourth scale degree derives its name from being just below the fifth note (dominant) and being a fifth below the tonic.  It’s placement makes it a fairly strong note often leading to the dominant or tonic and sometimes it finishes a musical phrase on its own.
  • Dominant: The fifth note in the scale is the second strongest to the tonic.  In many cases, other notes will resolve to the dominant rather than the tonic and the end of a musical phrase.
  • Submediant: The sixth note of the scale is known as the submediant because it is halfway between the subdominant and tonic.  It’s function is similar to the mediant.
  • Leading Tone:  The last note on the way up to the tonic the leading tone creates the most dissonance and just begs to resolve to tonic.  A great way to torture musicians is to end a musical phrase with the leading tone.

By knowing the names and the roles each scale degree plays in the scale, we can better understand the relationship of melodies and harmonies which can aid in composition, improvisation, and analysis.  You no longer have to say, “I like that song, it sounds pretty.”  Instead, you can say, “It sounded like the composer was going to resolve to the subdominant, but instead he moved to the dominant and then resolved to the tonic.  That move created a little bit of tension, but not too much. I liked that.”  Impressive.

Music Theory Basics Part 3: Key Signatures

In the first two parts of Music Theory Basics, we covered a lot of topics.  Today we will only be focusing on one topic: key signatures.  There are, however, several layers to this concept.  I will try an lay it out in a way that makes it a tasty parfait and not an onion.

Let’s start with a little background.

Western music (music originating from western Europe) evolved from ancient Greece.  Back then, music was learned, performed, and passed down by ear.  The Greeks used a system of modes.  Each mode had different “rules” of what the musician would play.  These rules determined, among other things, whether or not a note was sharp or flat.  From the modes developed, what we call, scales.  When music began to be written down, scribes noticed these “rules” for each scale and began to use key signatures to indicate the notes that would be consistently sharp or flat.

With and Without key signature

Key Signature: Generally written immediately after the clef, it is a series of sharp or flat symbols (AKA: accidentals) placed on the staff denoting which notes are consistently played sharp or flat.

key signature

  • Accidentals: Includes, sharp, flat, and natural signs.  Accidentals are used to alter the pitch of a note higher or lower.
  • Sharp: Means higher in pitch.  Notes with the sharp symbol in front of them, or that are indicated as sharp within a key signature, are to be played a half step higher that their natural counterpart.  For instance, an A-sharp is a 1/2 step higher that an a-natural.

sharp

  • Flat: Means lower in pitch.  Notes with the flat symbol in front of them, or that are indicated as flat within a key signature, are to be played a half step lower that their natural counterpart.  For instance, an A-flat is a 1/2 step lower that an A-natural.

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  • Natural: the natural sign cancels any previous accidentals and returns the notes to its unaltered or natural state.

natural

Now, I wish that I could say that once the key signature is set, you don’t have to worrying about it changing.  Key signatures can change often in a piece of music.  Plus, composers often use accidentals in places that they want harmony get interesting.  You will see the symbol directly in front of the note and that accidental applies for the entire measure.

passage

So, now that you understand all the symbols, how do you know what key you are in.  You could just learn by rote.  I like to use the following chart, though.  It is known as the Circle of Fifths.  I’m going to try by best to explain this briefly, but I could get a little long.  If you want to skip the explanation and just take the chart at face value, great.  There’s no quiz on it.  Just trust me it works.

circle of fifths

Want more information? It is called the Circle of Fifths because the key signatures are listed a fifth apart (meaning they are five notes apart including the starting note).  At the top of the circle, we have the key of C, the key of C has no sharp or flats.  It’s all natural.  If you were go up the scale by a fifth from C (C, D, E, F, G-that’s five!) you land on G.  The key of G has 1 sharp.  A fifth above G is D.  The key of D has two sharps and so on and so forth.  The more you advance by fifths, the more sharps you get.  You can see this pattern by going clockwise around the circle of fifths.  To determine a key signature that is full of flats, you must go counter-clockwise and you descend by fifths.  A fifth below C (C, B, A, G, F) is F.  The key of F has one flat.  Likewise, a fifth below F is B-flat.  The key of B-flat has two flats, and so on.

One thing that is tricky, is when you reach the bottom of the circle of fifths.  The flat key signatures and the sharp key signatures run together.  What’s happening there, we call enharmonic tones.

  • Enharmonic tones: They are two notes that are equivalent to each other.  For instance, F-sharp is an enharmonic tone to G-flat. Basically, an individual tone can have multiple names.  Still a little confusing?  Think about playing a piano.  If you start on G-natural, the black key below it is G-flat, but that is also the black key above F which we know as F-sharp.

Enharmonic_F-sharp_G-flat

What that translates to in the circle of fifths is that the key of C-flat major contains the enharmonic tones of a B major scale.

If the Circle of Fifths is not your cup of tea, check out Ricci Adams’ mathematic method.

We’ll stop there for today.  Our basics are quickly are becoming more advanced.  The last installment of Music Theory Basics, will cover intervals, scales, and the function of each note within the scale.

 

Music Theory Basics (Part 2)

In Music Theory Basics (Part 1), we discussed the musical staff, clefs, and note names.  Today, we will cover the basics of rhythm and note duration.  There are lots of charts in this one!

The term rhythm has come to mean several different things in today’s culture, but for our purposes, we will use the following definition:

Rhythm: The controlled movement of music in time usually divided into strong (or accented) and weak (or unaccented) beats in a piece of music.

  • Beats: The regular pulse of music.  Often, beats are dictated by accents in music, a metronome, or a conductor.
  • Strong (or accented) beat: The effect that occurs in music when one note or syllable is stressed or emphasized more than others.

Duration: The length of time that a note is sounded. This length of time is determined by the note value.

  • Note value: is the duration of a note in the context of a measure/bar of music as determined by the time signature.  Here are some common note values.

Common note values chart from Music Theory Basics (Part 2) on blog.kenneedyviolins.com.

To avoid confusion with note names, it is important to think about them in relationship to a whole note.  A half note is half the value of a whole note, a quarter note is one-fourth (or a quarter) of a whole note, and an eighth note is one-eighth the value of a whole note.  Here is another chart to break it down.

Note Values Chart #2 from Music Theory Basics (Part 2) on blog.kennedyviolins.com

  • Measure/Bar: a term that signifies the smallest division of a piece of music marked by vertical bar lines on the staff.  Each measure contains a fixed number of beats.  The number of beats is determined by the time signature.

Picture of Measure and Bar Lines from Music Theory (Part 2) on blog.kennedyviolins.com.

  • Time Signature: A symbol placed at the left side of the staff indicating the meter (or measure of time) of the piece of music.  A time signature is made up of two numbers.  The top number tells you how many beats are in each measure and the bottom number tells you which note is the beat.

The top number is pretty straightforward. It always signifies how many beats are in a a measure.  If it’s a 4 then there are four beats, if it’s a 6 then there are six beats, and so on.

To “crack the code” of the bottom number, you need to be familiar with factions.  The bottom number is the denominator of the fraction of the note that it represents.  For instance, a quarter note is one-fourth or 1/4 the value of a whole note. So, if the bottom of a time signature is a 4 then the quarter note gets the beat.  Likewise, an eighth note is one-eighth or 1/8 the value of a quarter note.  So, if the bottom of the time signature is an 8 then the eighth note gets the beat.

Here is a chart of common time signatures you will run into.

We will stop there for now.  You can now take the concepts we have learned in these first two parts and apply them too some of the basic songs in the repertoire!  Why not try this part of “Jingle Bells.”